Foam rollers help patients to recover from injuries

first_img Source:http://www.ucla.edu/ Jun 7 2018Foam rollers have become more prevalent in gyms, exercise classes and therapy clinics over the last 10 years. Many physical therapists use foam rollers to help patients recover from injuries – and for good reason. This flexible piece of equipment can help to increase range of motion, shorten recovery time, and enhance healing.You don’t have to be recovering from a procedure or injury to appreciate their usefulness. Anyone who experiences muscle soreness from stress, poor body mechanics or a workout can benefit from using a roller.”Foam rollers are under-utilized and under-appreciated,” says Christopher White, physical therapist and manager of outpatient rehabilitation at Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center. “This versatile piece of equipment not only can help lengthen muscles before and/or after exercise, it can also relax and soothe aching muscles.”Foam rollers work by breaking up adhesions that form in muscles or tendons. They also loosen trigger points (muscle “knots”), which feel like a sensitive spot in your soft tissues. Your body weight is what helps the roller target specific muscle areas.”The rolling motion loosens, relaxes and lengthens muscles in much the same way as a kneading massage does,” says Christopher. “Rolling is generally not as intense or targeted as a deep-tissue massage, but that can depend on how much pressure your trigger point is willing to endure.”Christopher, who uses foam rollers with many of his patients, is upfront about what to expect. “If you already have a roller, you likely have a love/hate relationship with them” he says. “The rolling process can be uncomfortable, and the body positions needed to utilize them correctly can be awkward. But you’ll ultimately feel the benefits.”Choosing a Foam RollerFoam rollers come in a variety of lengths, widths and densities. Choosing the right type of roller can help maximize the effects and reduce discomfort, so it’s important to try a few out before deciding which one to purchase.Related StoriesExercise during pregnancy can promote bone health of both mother and childUTHealth researchers investigate how to reduce stress-driven alcohol useLiver fat biomarker levels linked with metabolic health benefits of exercise, study findsDensity Besides correct utilization of the foam roller, density is a prime factor in how effective a roller is at trigger-point release. Low-density rollers provide less intense pressure, meaning they provide a more comfortable rolling experience but give a tighter stretch. Medium-density rollers provide more pressure because they are less flexible. High-density rollers provide the most pressure, but give muscles the fullest stretch.SizeLong rollers (36 inches) are versatile and a good choice for your first foam roller. They provide more stability than shorter rollers, and are more effective when used on larger muscles such as quads or hamstrings.Shorter lengths (12-18 inches) work best on calves and other smaller muscles, and are the perfect size for travel.DiameterThe majority of foam rollers are six inches in diameter, making it easier to comfortably roll your body onto it and then keep the rolling motion under control.While most rollers are smooth (and best for new users), some come with surface texture which intensify the pressure on targeted areas. New to the market are vibrating foam rollers. The added sensation of the vibration distracts your muscles from the uncomfortable pressure of the roller, which lessens the sensation of pain. This type of roller, has also been shown to increase range of movement after only a few uses.The cost of a standard foam roller seen in gyms and physical therapy clinics is generally between $8 and $30, while vibrating rollers cost can be $70 or more. Rollers can be found online, at most medical supplies stores and at places that sell hand weights, exercise bands and yoga mats.”Foam rollers may look like something you see in a swimming pool, but if utilized correctly, they can offer a lot of long-term benefits,” said Christopher. “They reduce stress, improve posture, decrease muscle soreness and generally make you feel more mobile, which are all important components of injury prevention and overall good health.”last_img read more

Dengue emerges in Japan for first time in decades

first_imgTOKYO—After reporting the country’s first domestically acquired case of dengue fever in nearly 70 years yesterday, Japan’s health ministry today confirmed finding two more patients. The initial patient, a girl in her teens, had a sudden onset of high fever on 20 August and was hospitalized in Saitama City, near Tokyo. Hospital staff, suspecting dengue, on 26 August sent blood samples to the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Tokyo, which confirmed the diagnosis.An epidemiological investigation turned up two more patients. All three are students at the same school in Tokyo and are members of a dance group that regularly practices in a city park, leading the ministry to conclude that students were infected in the park. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrycenter_img Dengue is widespread in the tropics and subtropics. According to the ministry, about 200 Japanese contract the mosquito-borne viral disease each year while traveling overseas. But none of the three patients had traveled overseas. A German woman apparently acquired the virus during a trip to Japan last September. After returning to Berlin, she was hospitalized for an acute fever and rash. Blood tests later confirmed a dengue infection.The dengue virus’s principal vector, the Aedes aegypti mosquito, is not found in Japan, but the tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, can also host the virus and is common throughout much of the country. The ministry played down the risk of an outbreak. Emaillast_img read more

Scientists grow bullish on pigtohuman transplants

first_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Genetically engineered pigs produced in Munich, Germany, were recently used in a record-breaking baboon heart transplant. Teams focusing on kidney and heart transplants now have results they’re eager to share with regulators. In the past couple of years, they have managed to dampen—though not eliminate—the violent immune response that transplanted pig organs normally provoke in monkeys. Earlier this year, a team at Emory University in Atlanta, Georiga, announced that a kidney from a genetically engineered pig had sustained a rhesus macaque monkey for more than 400 days before being rejected, breaking the record by more than 250 days. And today, a group of researchers headed by Bruno Reichart at the University of Munich in Germany announced they had nearly doubled the previous survival record for a life-sustaining pig heart transplant in a baboon, to 90 days.The study’s experimental design required that the group stop the experiment at 3 months, though the baboon was still “in very good condition,” University of Munich cardiac surgeon Paolo Brenner said after the presentation. It is the first animal to hit a milestone, set nearly 20 years ago by the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation, for determining whether a xenotransplantation approach is safe enough to try in humans, Brenner notes. The society’s guidelines are that 60% of animals in a study should survive at least 3 months. Brenner’s team is now working to repeat the results in more baboons, and they hope to launch a clinical trial in 2 or 3 years.That’s good news for a field that went through a protracted period of hard times. After a flood of optimism and investment in the early 1990’s, the struggle to overcome host immune response and fears that organs could transmit pig viruses to humans scared off pharmaceutical funders. But new immunosuppressant drug regimens and a wealth of new genetically engineered pig varieties have changed the equation, says transplant immunologist David Cooper of the University of Alabama in Birmingham. With gene-editing tools such as CRISPR, scientists can now eliminate immune-provoking sugars from the surface of pig cells, introduce human genes that regulate blood coagulation to prevent dangerous clots, and snip out viral sequences that some fear could infect a human host.“We feel much more encouraged than we did even 2 years ago,” Cooper says. His group is exploring kidney transplants from another genetically engineered pig variety, and expects to apply for permission to start a U.S. clinical trial by the end of next year.For all the optimism, researchers are far from being able to offer patients an organ with a lifetime warranty. They are still discovering new mechanisms of immune rejection and debating which genetic changes to pigs are best. And other organs pose bigger challenges. The lung, for example, has proved highly sensitive to inflammation, and experimental animals have survived only a handful of days.What’s more, any whole organ transplant will for now require a cocktail of immunosuppressant drugs that could leave patients vulnerable to infections. That’s a big obstacle to commercial success, says Martine Rothblatt, CEO of United Therapeutics Corporation in Silver Spring, Maryland. The company has invested in xenotransplantation research focused on lung disease, and owns Revivicor, a major supplier of genetically engineered pigs. To be a commercial hit, xenotransplantation “must touch tens and hundreds of thousands of people,” she says. “I do not believe such a large number of transplants is likely with poorly tolerated organs that need to be beaten down with immunosuppressants.”But that’s likely to be the state of play for the first pioneering patients, if whole pig organs make it to the clinic. Cooper points to the many people with kidney failure forced to spend hours a week in blood-filtering dialysis treatment. For these patients, even a temporarily functional pig kidney might be valuable as they wait for an available human kidney. “If you offered them a year off dialysis, they would probably think that’s pretty good,” Cooper says. “You have to start somewhere.” BALTIMORE, MARYLAND—Add your name to a waitlist for a kidney transplant in the United States today, and you’ll join around 100,000 people, many of whom have already been waiting years. The scarcity of life-saving organs for transplants has raised hopes for substitute organs from pigs, which have a similar anatomy to humans. But decades of scientific setbacks have kept clinical trials of that approach, called xenotransplantation, on the horizon.Now, a few teams are chomping at the bit. Exhilarated by recent results in monkey experiments, some researchers here at a meeting of the International Xenotransplantation Association are eyeing human testing.“What we thought was very far away seems to be coming to the near future,” says Muhammad Mohiuddin, a cardiac transplant surgeon at the University of Maryland School of Medicine here. He moderated a premeeting session where scientists discussed advances with officials of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which would review any application for a clinical trial. Jan-Michael Abicht Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*)center_img Scientists grow bullish on pig-to-human transplants Email Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country By Kelly ServickSep. 22, 2017 , 1:47 PMlast_img read more

Whos the most influential biomedical scientist Computer program guided by artificial intelligence

first_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Who’s the most influential biomedical scientist? Computer program guided by artificial intelligence says it knows Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Eric Lander in 2012 Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Eric Lander, president and founding director of the Broad Institute and a biologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, is the most influential biomedical researcher of the modern era, according to a computer program. Lander, a geneticist and mathematician, ranks first on a new list of top biomedical researchers produced by the scientific literature search tool Semantic Scholar.Semantic Scholar, launched in 2015, is an academic search engine aiming to tackle the problem of information overload. It uses artificial intelligence (AI) to help users sift through huge numbers of scientific papers and understand (to a limited extent) their content. The free tool was developed by the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence (AI2), a nonprofit based in Seattle, Washington, that was co-founded in 2014 by Microsoft Co-Founder Paul Allen.Semantic Scholar’s archive of searchable literature initially focused on computer science, and last year expanded to include neuroscience. Today, it is expanding again, to include the millions of biomedical research papers indexed by PubMed and other sources; overall, Semantic Scholar’s archive is now approaching 40 million papers.  Last year, Semantic Scholar’s programmers also added functionality that allows it to measure the influence of researchers and organizations, based on what they call “highly influential citations”—which takes into account the context around citations, excluding any self-citations—and other information. In April 2016, the tool ranked computer scientists, and when its corpus was expanded to neuroscience in November 2016, it was also used to judge the most influential brain scientists. Now, Semantic Scholar is ranking biomedical researchers. Here’s the list of the top 10, provided to ScienceInsider:center_img Adam Fagen (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) Email By Dalmeet Singh ChawlaOct. 17, 2017 , 4:20 PM Eric Lander, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (biology) Karl Friston, University College London (neuroscience) Raymond Dolan, University College London (neuroscience) Shizuo Akira, Osaka University (immunology) David Botstein, Calico (biology) Dennis Smith, Pfizer (pharmacokinetics) Eugene Koonin, National Center for Biotechnology Information (biology) Walter Willett, Harvard School of Public Health (epidemiology) Rudolf Jaenisch, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (genetics) Bert Vogelstein, Johns Hopkins Medical School (oncology) (Friston and Dolan, neuroscientists who hold the second and third spots on the list, respectively, also held the top two positions on Semantic Scholar’s list of most influential neuroscientists.)The absence of women on the list has drawn attention on social media, with some researchers wondering if the result reflected a bias in Semantic Scholar’s ranking algorithm, or is another expression of long-documented differences in gender representation in the biomedical sciences and scientific publishing.In a statement, AI2’s Marie Hagman, a senior product manager who oversees Semantic Scholar, said: “I think the fact that there are no women in the Top 10 authors by the highly influential citation analysis done by AI2 is spotlighting the well-reported problem of publication bias in science and in the context of the current global conversation on gender. It’s encouraging to see that people are paying more attention to this issue, as the all-male list last year didn’t receive this kind of buzz.”Information overloadWith scientific literature doubling roughly every 9 years, keeping up is becoming increasingly difficult, Hagman says. There’s “a ton of information trapped in these articles and we want to bring it to life,” she says. “We think there are potential cures or ways to improve or save human lives that may be buried away in a PDF somewhere.”Semantic Scholar gets used on average a million times each month, Hagman says. Ultimately, she hopes that the tool can go even further in the content it extracts, perhaps by even suggesting hypotheses for researchers to test. And she envisions the tool pulling data and comparing similar experiments from different papers. “An automated meta-analysis is certainly something we believe is on the horizon,” Hagman says.One limitation of the tool is that it can’t trawl paywalled papers. Hagman notes, however, that her group is negotiating with publishers for varying levels of access.Many other academic search engines, such as Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search, already exist. And any of these search tools will do the job for those who are experts in a particular field and know what they are looking for, Hagman says. But for those exploring connections between different fields or looking into new areas, she believes no other tool provides the “discovery experience” offered by Semantic Scholar.Randy Olson, an AI researcher at the University of Pennsylvania (UPenn), says Semantic Scholar is “far more useful” than Google Scholar. “Could Semantic Scholar’s AI piece together that a relatively unimportant discovery in one field is a groundbreaking solution to a major challenge in another field?” he asks. “Only time will tell, but I’m optimistic.”But in the future, “general purpose search engines may become so advanced that there’s no need for academic engines,” notes Daniel Himmelstein, a data scientist at UPenn. “It’s going to be hard to beat search engines trained on decades of searches across the entire web at information retrieval.”*Update, 19 October, 3:22 p.m.: This story has been updated to include a comment from AI2 on the lack of women in the top 10 list of influential biomedical researchers.*Correction, 19 October, 3:47 p.m.: An earlier version of this story incorrectly stated that there was one woman on the top 10 list. There are none.last_img read more

Top stories NASAs carbon monitoring cuts a cancer drug flop and the

first_img Email (Left to right): © JACQUES JANGOUX/SCIENCE SOURCE; STEVE GSCHMEISSNER/SCIENCE SOURCE; DAVID MCLAIN Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Last month, the surprising failure of a large clinical trial of a promising cancer immunotherapy drug quickly reverberated across the pharmaceutical industry. Three companies have canceled, suspended, or downsized 12 other phase III trials of the compound, epacadostat, or two similar drugs, together slated to enroll more than 5000 patients with a variety of advanced cancers. The drugs “moved to randomized clinical trials too fast,” says neuroimmunologist Michael Platten of the University of Heidelberg in Germany. Now, we realize the effect of the drugs is “still a black box,” he says.Salmon spawn fierce debate over protecting endangered species, thanks to a single geneIn 2017, a California tribe asked the U.S. government to declare a spring run of Chinook, or king, salmon endangered—and to protect it separately from genetically similar fish that migrate up the same river in the fall. The tribe’s argument hinges on recent genomic studies, which found that a single gene appears to control whether Chinook salmon, and another related species, migrate upriver before or after reaching sexual maturity. The research has sparked a fierce debate. At its heart: whether a single gene should be enough to qualify a population for protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.One of the Milky Way’s fastest stars is an invader from another galaxyIn April, the collaboration behind the European Space Agency’s Gaia satellite released a data set containing the motions, and much more, for 1.3 billion stars. Researchers quickly sprang into action to look at the data. Last week, one group reported the discovery of three white dwarfs—the dying embers of sunlike stars—hurtling through the galaxy at thousands of kilometers per second, perhaps flung out from supernovae explosions. Another group reported more than two dozen fast-moving stars, some apparently kicked out by our galaxy’s central black hole. The flood of discoveries has sent astronomers racing to their telescopes to check and classify the swift objects.Tourism is four times worse for the planet than previously believedGoing on vacation may be fun for you, but it’s not great for Earth. The carbon footprint of global tourism is about four times larger than previously recognized, and it accounts for about one-twelfth of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions, a new study suggests. Previous analyses typically tallied only carbon dioxide emissions due to air travel. But the new study also includes emissions of carbon dioxide and other planet-warming gases due to the construction and maintenance of infrastructure such as hotels and airports, as well as emissions associated with tourists’ purchases of food, beverages, and souvenirs. Top stories: NASA’s carbon monitoring cuts, a cancer drug flop, and the fight over one salmon gene Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Trump White House quietly cancels NASA research verifying greenhouse gas cutsYou can’t manage what you don’t measure. The adage is especially relevant for climate-warming greenhouse gases, which are crucial to manage—and challenging to measure. In recent years, satellite and aircraft instruments have begun monitoring carbon dioxide and methane remotely, and NASA’s Carbon Monitoring System has helped stitch together observations of sources and sinks into high-resolution models of the planet’s flows of carbon. Now, President Donald Trump’s administration has quietly killed the program, jeopardizing plans to verify the national emission cuts agreed to in the Paris climate accords.A promising new cancer drug has hit a major setback, raising questions about whether the field is moving too fast By Katie LanginMay. 11, 2018 , 5:25 PM Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrylast_img read more

NASA picks mission to make allsky infrared map

first_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe NASA JPL SPHEREx would map hundreds of millions of galaxies in the infrared.  NASA has just given the green light to a mission that will study multiple eras of cosmic history, from the earliest fractions of a second after the big bang to modern-day planetary formation. The space-based Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization, and Ices Explorer (SPHEREx) will map the entire sky in the infrared—wavelengths that are mostly blocked by Earth’s atmosphere.“It’s a great moment,” says SPHEREx Principal Investigator James Bock, an astronomer at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, who says he’s glad to be just one member of a large team. “If it was just me, I’d be really panicked.”SPHEREx beat out one other finalist for NASA’s middle-class explorer program (MIDEX), a competitive mission line whose costs are capped at $250 million. Previous MIDEX missions include the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), which launched last year. SPHEREx has been awarded $242 million and is expected to launch in 2023. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrycenter_img By Adam MannFeb. 13, 2019 , 5:35 PM Email NASA picks mission to make all-sky infrared map One of SPHEREx’s main goals will be to determine the distance from Earth to 300 million galaxies and map out their 3D structure. By looking at over-densities and under-densities in their large-scale distribution, the mission might be able to tease out tiny effects from a hypothesized period in the early universe known as inflation, when the universe expanded exponentially in size in the moments after the big bang.Primordial quantum mechanical fluctuations from the newborn universe, boosted by inflation, left ripples on the cosmic microwave background, the most distant light that telescopes can see. Similarly, inflation could have generated a signature on galactic distribution that would give researchers clues about its details. Some theories posit that the energy for inflation came from a field with an associated particle known as an inflaton.“It’s possible that view is simplistic,” Bock says. “There are reasons to think there will be multiple fields involved.”SPHEREx will also gather information about the total light emitted by galaxies, giving insights into an under-studied era known as reionization, when the first stars began lighting up the universe and heating up clouds of hydrogen. Finally, closer to home, the mission will map out the abundance of ices in molecular clouds within the Milky Way. As these clouds collapse, they form stars and planets, though the details of the process are still not well known.“Ice on the dust grains may be important for accretion,” Bock says. “For instance, causing things to stick together better.”In the MIDEX competition, SPHEREx won out over the Arcus satellite, which would have studied galaxies in x-rays to get a better understanding of the supermassive black holes at their centers. An exoplanet mission, the Fast INfrared Exoplanet Spectroscopy Survey Explorer (FINESSE), was originally another finalist. But NASA asked its designers to instead contribute technology and expertise to a similar observatory in development by the European Space Agency called the Atmospheric Remote-sensing Exoplanet Large-survey (ARIEL).last_img read more

Cancer genes help deer antlers grow

first_imgCancer genes help deer antlers grow Horns and antlers evolved once in an ancestor to all these animals, they found. What’s more, these new structures emerged when genes that help build nerve, bone, and skin tissue altered and became active in forming these bony protrusions, Qiu and colleagues report today in Science. In particular, changes to genes involved in bone formation and the development of an embryonic tissue called the neural crest likely helped lead to headgear in the first place. As further evidence of a single origin for bony headgear, Chinese water deer and two species of musk deer, both of which lack antlers, have a mutation in one of the genes linked to bone formation.In regular deer, the researchers found eight active genes that are normally involved in promoting tumor formation and growth. That suggests, Qiu says, that antler growth is more like that of bone cancer than that of typical bones. However, in contrast to bone cancer, where tumors grow unchecked, antler growth is tightly regulated by the activity of tumor-suppressing and tumor-growth-inhibiting genes, the team reports.“Deer antlers [are] using essentially a controlled form of bone cancer growth,” says Edward Davis, an evolutionary paleobiologist at the University of Oregon in Eugene who was not involved with the work. The involvement of the tumor-promoting genes isn’t surprising, he says; what’s surprising is the involvement of the cancer-controlling genes.But that surprise may have done more than just turbocharge deer antler growth. The cancer-suppressing genes that keep growth in check also protect against cancer in general, Qiu says. Zoos, for example, have documented cancer rates in deer that are five times lower than rates in other mammals—perhaps, Davis says, a “happy accident” of antler evolution. Email Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Antlers are some of the fastest-growing bone in the animal kingdom: Deer, moose, elk, and reindeer sprout up to half a meter of new bone growth in a month prior to the mating season. Now, researchers studying their genomes have discovered how. Genes that both promote and suppress cancer are partially responsible, suggesting the bony tissue may reveal new ways to fight cancer.The study started when scientists in China and their colleagues abroad sequenced the genomes of 44 ruminants, including cows, deer, giraffes, pronghorn sheep, and other mammals that have complex stomachs for digesting plants. Many of these ruminants sprout bony protrusions, including the skin- and hair-covered bony ossicles of giraffes; the horns of cattle, which have an additional hard sheath; pronghorns in which this sheath is shed every year; and the annually shed antlers of deer, elk, and moose.The scientists then looked for the genes underlying the evolution and development of this headgear. Qiang Qiu, a geneticist from Northwestern Polytechnical University in Xi’an, China, and colleagues mapped out which genes were active in 16 live tissues from sheep, goats, and deer, including horns and antlers. They also assessed which genes were active in the developing embryos of some animals.center_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) By Elizabeth PennisiJun. 20, 2019 , 2:00 PMlast_img read more

Woman Accuses J Alexanders Restaurant Of Racial Profiling

first_img SUBSCRIBE A$AP Rocky Being In A Swedish Prison Will Not Stop Her From Going To The Country That Showed Her ‘So Much Love’ 2018 Winter Olympic Games - Opening Ceremony Thanks for signing up! Get ready for Exclusive content, Interviews,and Breaking news delivered direct to your inbox. Get ready for Exclusive content, Interviews,and Breaking news delivered direct to your inbox. The restaurant also claimed they gave the security surveillance video over to the West Bloomfield police.SEE ALSO:Forgive But Don’t Forget: Remembering Those Times When Barbara Bush Waded Into The Waters Of RaceR. Kelly’s New Lawyer Who Used To Prosecute Sex Crimes Insists Disgraced Singer ‘Is Not Guilty’This Colin Kaepernick Retweet Says Everything You Need To Know About The NFL Players’ Anthem Grievance Meghan McCain Whines That She Can’t Attack llhan Omar Because Trump Is Too Racist Entertainment, News and Lifestyle for Black America. News told by us for us. Black America’s #1 News Source: Our News. Our Voice. Lia Gant claims while at J. Alexander’s on June 20 she was told she had to give up her seat for two white men. When she refused, she claims the white bartender poured her drink down the sink, Gant explained at a press conference. “I immediately got up and went to management and she said I shouldn’t be upset because the drink wasn’t thrown on me… I was racially profiled. I was told to move out of my seat for two other white men to be seated.”center_img Meet All The Black People Competing In The 2018 Winter Olympics She was also forced to pay the bill even the drink was not removed.Her attorney Maurice Davis said, “We refuse to backslide into a nation where black people are told to give up their seat to white people, where black people are denied services at restaurants.”Another patron, Jerrick Jefferson, said se was called the N-word by a white patron at the restaurant — on the same day Gant was allegedly profiled. See video of the incident with Gant, which shows a man throwing food:Gant and Jefferson are calling for the restaurant’s staff to be fired and they are seeking undetermined financial damages.According WKYZ, the restaurant released the following statement, “On June 20, our staff and many of our guests experienced an unfortunate incident that disrupted the otherwise pleasant dining environment in our West Bloomfield restaurant. Our staff made every responsible effort to safely diffuse this incident in the face of profanity and acts of misbehavior directed at them. None of our employees used profanity, made racial remarks or threw food but certain guests did. Ironically, two of those guests involved in this incident have falsely accused our staff of racial discrimination.” Gov. Cuomo Slams Mayor Bill De Blasio For The Eric Garner Case But He Also Failed The Family J. Alexander , Michigan , Racial Profiling This story may sound like it’s from the 40 yeas ago but it’s actually today in Trump’s America. A Black woman was told she had to give up her seat at a bar to two white men and she refused. The restaurant is denying any responsibility.See Also: 5 Things We Want To See From Cory Booker In The First Democratic Presidential Debate More By NewsOne Stafflast_img read more

Standing On The Corner takes work

first_imgStanding On The Corner takes work Photo by L. Parsons The City of Winslow is gearing up for the 19th annual Standing On The Corner Festival Sept. 29 and 30. The preparation includes installing a new lighting system, which will alleviate costs related to renting portable lights and generators for the duration of the festival. The Winslow City Council approved $40,000 for Eagle Pavilion improvements early this summer. Streets and parks department workers Felicia Gonzales (foreground), Nolan Horn (left) and Mike Spex (right) are digging trenches at the pavilion that will house the permanent lighting fixtures. September 21, 2017center_img RelatedSubscribe or log in to read the rest of this content. Bottom Adlast_img

Sitharaman says Railways need Rs 50 lakh crore till 2030 bats for

first_imgBy Express Web Desk |New Delhi | Updated: July 5, 2019 4:16:07 pm Railways to advertise for 1.3 lakh more jobs Advertising Suburban Rail: Bangalore MP PC Mohan meets Piyush Goyal, citizens flood Twitter with demands indian railways, irctc, railways foot massage, indian railway foot massage, indore bg junction, indore railway station, indian railway news, indian railway updates She endorsed that a PPP would be used to unleash faster development and delivery of passenger freight services for railway projects to boost the connectivity. (Representational Image)Focusing on better rail connectivity across the country, Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman on Friday proposed public private partnership (PPP) in the country’s largest public transporter. In her budget speech in Parliament today, Sitharaman said that Railway infrastructure would need an investment of Rs 50 lakh crores between 2018 and 2030. In the Budget, funds of Rs 7,255 crore have been allocated for construction of new railway lines, Rs 2,200 crore for gauge conversion, Rs 700 crore for doubling, Rs 6,114.82 crore for rolling stock and Rs 1,750 crore for signalling and telecom – these allocations have remained the same as in the interim budget that was presented in February presented by then Finance Minister Piyush Goyal.While specifying that the government envisions using rivers for cargo transportation, Sitharaman said the move will also decongest roads and railways. She added that Railway stations modernisation will be launched this year.Capital support from the budget for railways had also echoed in the interim Budget earlier this year, when the then Finance Minister Piyush Goyal had proposed Rs 64,587 crore in 2019-20. The Railways’ overall capital expenditure programme was Rs 1,58,658 crore.-With PTI inputs Post Comment(s) Related News Shame for the nation that Railways employ manual scavengers, says Kanimozhi She endorsed that a PPP would be used to unleash faster development and delivery of passenger freight services for railway projects to boost the connectivity.“Railways will be encouraged to invest in suburban railways through special purpose vehicles (SPVs) and enhance metro rail network through PPPs,” she said.Meanwhile, PTI reported that the Indian Railways has got a budgetary allocation of Rs 65,837 crore and the highest ever outlay for capital expenditure amounting to Rs 1.60 lakh crore in this year’s budget allocation. Last year, the outlay for the railways was Rs 1.48 lakh crore while the Budget allocation was Rs 55,088 crore. Advertisinglast_img read more

In China archeologists find earliest evidence of ochre on bone engravings

first_img Top News Jharkhand court drops ‘donate Quran’ condition for bail to Ranchi woman over offensive post In China, archeologists find earliest evidence of ochre on bone engravings A photograph (top) and tracing of an engraved bone fragment found at Lingjing in China’s Henan Province. (Image courtesy Francesco d’Errico and Luc Doyon)Archeologists in China have discovered two engraved bones with ochre incisions in a layer dating back between 105,000 and 125,000 years ago, which they say is the earliest evidence of human populations using ochre — an earthy pigment — for symbolic purposes. The discovery of abstract engravings is considered an indicator of modern human cognition which researchers say led to the development of symbols, drawings, art and language. Karnataka trust vote today: Speaker’s call on resignations, says SC, but gives rebel MLAs a shield 1 Comment(s) Written by Sowmiya Ashok | Beijing | Published: July 13, 2019 2:43:17 am Advertising After Masood Azhar blacklisting, ICJ verdict in Kulbhushan case isolates Pakistan Advertising The paper ‘Engraved bones from the archaic hominin site of Lingjing, Henan Province’ points out that the population which inhabited the region saw bone as a medium on which they could permanently record sequential markings and used ochre as a way of highlighting them. Doyon told The Indian Express that amongst the key issues in research on cultural evolution is when, where and why prehistoric populations ceased to consider bone as a by-product of butchery and carcass processing activities.“Over the last two years, I had the opportunity to be part of a team that documented the discovery of the oldest known bone tools in China, which also were discovered at Lingjing. They consists of bone and antler fragments used to make and resharpen stone tools. The discovery of the engravings now indicates that the people living at this site ~115,000 years ago not only understood the utility of bone for the manufacture of stone tools but considered this raw material as a good medium to permanently record abstract patterns,” he said.Further, he pointed out that modern human cognition refers to the capacity of making complex tools and producing different art forms such as painting, engraving and music. “It is clear that members of our species, Homo sapiens, possess these abilities. However, opinions still differ amongst archaeologists between those who think archaic hominin cognition is comparable to that of Homo sapiens and those who don’t,” he said. Archaic hominins refer to the now extinct human species that lived prior and during the evolution of Homo sapiens in Africa. “This discovery indicates that the production of abstract motifs, possibly used for symbolic purposes, was an integral part of the cultures developed by human populations who lived in China contemporary to the emergence of our species, Homo sapiens, in Africa,” co-author Luc Doyon, postdoctoral fellow at Shandong University’s Institute of Cultural Heritage told The Indian Express.The findings published this week in the peer-reviewed Antiquity journal is a result of a collaboration between researchers from China, France and Norway led by Li Zhanyang from Shandong University and Francesco d’Errico from Universite de Bordeaux. The bones were discovered at the Lingjing site in Xuchang in central China’s Henan province, which has been a site of excavation yearly from 2005 to 2018 by a team led by Li. Since 2005, the team has found 45 fragments of human cranial fossils at the site which has since been pieced together and named the ‘Xuchang Man’.In the state-run China Daily, Li said one of the bones discovered there had seven engraved lines with the presence of a red residue. “Based on experimental reproduction and subsequent microscopic analysis, the researchers found the sequential marks were made with different tools and motions. But they have not been able to decipher the meaning of the marks,” the report stated.last_img read more

The Weird Mistakes Killing Tesla

first_imgTesla is trending to fail spectacularly. (CEO Elon Musk actually has an impressive failure history.) Tesla has been burning cash at an unsustainable rate, and it keeps making avoidable mistakes that weaken it.Here’s what is weird: You’d think the firm’s biggest problem would be that every large car maker was working behind the scenes to kill it. However, with the exception of the dealerships (which I’ll get to), the car companies for the most part appear to have worked harder to emulate Tesla than to destroy it.I expect that if Tesla fails, all fingers will point to Musk and the executive team as problems because we focus more on blame than understanding the cause of a mistake. This is problematic, because folks then don’t learn from mistakes — they just learn to dodge blame and avoid risks, which would be the wrong lesson to take away from this.In short, Tesla’s biggest problem is itself.I’ll explain and then close with my product of the week: the Threadripper 2 processor from AMD — 32 cores of amazing! Top Gear used to be one of the most popular automotive shows in the world until one of its hosts slugged a producer for not having the right food and the entire cast left.Every week the show hosts pretty much abused themselves, and a bunch of cars, for our humorous enjoyment. It was the most popular car show in the world. The hosts were not race car drivers, mechanics, or automotive engineers. They were basically comedians using cars as a vehicle to entertain a lot of people.They liked some cars (Jaguars, Porsche, etc.) and were generally down on American iron and one or two European brands. When they tested the Tesla sports car they didn’t like it. I can’t blame them, because when I tested the Tesla sports car I didn’t like it either.Based on a Lotus, which isn’t known for reliability but is known to be one of the best track cars on the planet, it was kind of a rattling mess that sucked on a road track but would kick butt 0-60.They didn’t like the car, so Tesla — instead of taking their opinion in stride — sued the show. The company lost (apparently its similar fight with The New York Times played a role), but the litigationfocused people on the review that damaged Tesla’s image, not only as a car company but as a rebel brand. Rebels don’t sue comedians. Wrapping Up In the U.S. dealers move cars. On much of the East Coast, the folks who own dealerships are politicians. Tesla rolled to market with a company store model that was at least as problematic as coming to market with an electric car.It meant Tesla had to set up and fund the entire sales channel as opposed to recruiting dealers that largely would self-fund the effort. The politicians who owned dealerships moved against Tesla and were able to pass laws barring Tesla stores in some states. Granted much of this activity was anticompetitive and should have been illegal, but it still created a huge drag on sales and expansion, which a new car company doesn’t need.Oh, and the stores, based on recent reports, perform very poorly compared to the traditional dealerships with regard to selling cars. AMD Threadripper 2 Going Private While the Tesla S and Model 3 are really good cars in their respective segments (initial quality aside), the Model X made almost no sense whatsoever. (Consumer Reports called it “Fast and Flawed.”) The easy path to creating a good SUV is to start with something like a Land Rover in terms of design target and then refine it to make the result uniquely yours.The Jaguar F-Pace is a good example, in that it borrows from the Range Rover with features but has more of a performance/design focus allowing it to stand out against its Range Rover peer. Granted, it helps that Tata Motors owns both Jaguar and Range Rover.SUVs basically are more masculine minivans, which means they need to be very reliable, they need to be as effective as trucks (carrying both people and materials), and they need offroad skills (that folks mostly won’t use but do consider when buying).Instead, what Tesla appeared to create was a pregnant Model S. Initially, the back seats didn’t even fold down, so you couldn’t use it to carry materials. It had gull wing doors that had a very high failure rate (way too complex), a windshield that was wicked expensive to replace — but so big that getting hit by a rock was a given — and no offroad chops at all. In short, it was an SUV that sucked at being an SUV. How do you miss THAT meeting? Dealer Issues Solar City One of the big advantages Tesla had was in approaching the market with nearly a clean slate. However, in manufacturing, decades have gone into creating processes that result in high-quality cars. What a lot of us thought Tesla did was just get rid of the processes that made no sense in their ramp-up to manufacture cars, but what it appears to have done is start everything from scratch. That resulted in relatively low quality for the initial runs of every car Tesla made.You’d think that by the time the Model 3 was released, this issue would have been sorted, but quality issues surrounding the Model 3 seem to be in line with, if not worse than, those that plagued the Model S initially.Adapting quality controls and accountability in line with Toyota should have been a goal for the firm, but apparently it was not. There is no price point where adequate quality is optional. In addition, because problems related to fit and finish, consistency in materials, and panel gaps had to be corrected in the field under warranty, Tesla’s ability to generate a profit was significantly compromised. Quality should have been job one. Instead, it constantly appeared to be an afterthought. For a luxury brand, being ranked toward the bottom on quality is never good. Just the name “Threadripper” brings a smile to my face, and the part currently is the most desirable desktop processor in the market. Even the old 16-core version provided more performance than most folks ever would need. This current 32-core (64 thread) version pushes that envelope even more. Going private isn’t a bad idea. It worked really well for Dell. However, Dell was profitable, and assets exceeded liabilities, which means there was such a thing as stockholder equity.However, Tesla’s liabilities exceed assets by billions, which means there isn’t such a thing as stockholder equity. So how do you fund the effort? More importantly, bringing up the possibility — which did spike the stock and really screw with short sellers — has triggered scrutiny of Tesla’s financials and caused a lot of mini-heart attacks based on what people saw. It also may have triggered an SEC investigation, and those seldom end well.Both things could scare customers away from Tesla at a time when they are desperately needed to get the company into the black before the cash reserves run out. Tesla X Self-Driving Capability Given its size and influence, Tesla’s failure would be catastrophic for a number of reasons. It likely would slow significantly the development of electric cars, which are needed to combat global warming (watching California burn this month has certainly driven that need home).It likely would begin a cascade of failures across Musk’s other companies, like SpaceX, which could find it difficult to raise necessary operating funds.It could cause a sudden change in the stock market, influencing it to become excessively conservative, resulting in a massive broad market correction. It could significantly set back innovation in the U.S automotive industry, accelerating a shift to China as the next big automotive superpower.The way to fix the company is to stop it from shooting itself in the foot. Get it to avoid unnecessary fights, focus it on profits, bring up quality, reduce distractions and crazy behavior, and operate like a real business, which means making some hard decisions about the names that are used and the sales channel that isn’t working well. Tesla doesn’t have a ton of time.By the way, it struck me to look at Tesla’s board of directors. Ironically, there is not a single car, manufacturing, sales, or transportation expert on it. I think I’ve just found the core of Tesla’ problems. Solar City, another Elon Musk company, recently was in danger of going under. To save the firm, Tesla bought it. Tesla, which has been unprofitable, increased its risk of failure by absorbing another unprofitable company. Two unprofitable companies, when added together, don’t make a profitable company.For the most part, the deal put more pressure on Tesla’s income statement, further reduced its reserves, increased the firm’s complexity, and made it less likely to survive. Now there should be a reasonably high synergy between solar power and electric cars, but that synergy has not emerged yet at Tesla. (Also, Solar Cityhas been having execution problems of its own.) Tesla recently announced that it was developing its own autonomous car processor and planned to displace its primary vendor of this technology, Nvidia. As noted, Tesla currently is short on operating funds and it recently has begun to beg suppliers for kickbacks in order to save the company.To create Nvidia’s current autonomous car platform (which is 10x the speed of the one Tesla currently uses) took five years and around US$2B (or about what Tesla now has in short term assets).They has neither the time nor the money, and this is an area in which it can’t scrimp on quality. At a time when the firm should be husbanding its cash and focused like a laser on getting the company profitable, why start an expensive development process to reinvent a very expensive component?In addition, it faces a bigger problem: charging infrastructure, particularly in city centers. Currently folks have mixed opinions on autonomous driving, but all seem to agree that the fear of not being able to charge an electric vehicle is one of the biggest concerns limiting sales. The Autopilot Fiasco There is something about having the most powerful processor in the world running on your rig that is just wicked cool, particularly if you are into water cooling. Practically, if you aren’t an engineer, graphics artist, video/photo editor, or massive strategy game player (and by massive, I mean big games like Ashes of the Singularity, which use a tone of resources), then you don’t need this part.Need and want are two very different things, however. If need prevailed, we’d all drive Smart Cars and the market for performance cars wouldn’t exist.Granted, you’d still need a top graphics card from AMD or Nvidia and an equally cool case, but the result would be a level of performance that you just couldn’t get on the desk till now.My favorite combination, at least from a branding perspective, is AMD Threadripper + Nvidia Titan. When you put the two together, “Titan Threadripper,” it just sounds impressively fast.I wonder how long it will be before AMD creates a Threadripper-like graphics card? I’m thinking Annihilation, so you’d end up with an Annihilation Threadripper box.In any case I’m all about performance, and since the AMD Threadripper is the highest-performing processor in market, it is my product of the week. The opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of ECT News Network. Tesla Quality Tesla vs. Top Gear When I was growing up, a story about cruise control made the rounds. One version went like this: A guy came to the U.S. and wanted to tour the country on the road. He rented an RV, and when getting a briefing about the features, asked about the cruise control. The sales guy told him it was kind of like a plane’s autopilot. So, the guy went out on the road, set the cruise control, and went back to make some coffee. It ended really badly for the driver, the RV and the rental company.The industry lesson, whether these incidents actually took place or not, was “don’t call cruise control ‘autopilot,'” because people will do stupid things.So, what does Tesla call its adaptive cruise control? “Autopilot.” The feature has been implicated in some fatalities, and Consumer Reports evenasked Tesla to change the name. Tesla refused. One wonders whether Tesla would rather have dead customers then have to change a foolish name. Rob Enderle has been an ECT News Network columnist since 2003. His areas of interest include AI, autonomous driving, drones, personal technology, emerging technology, regulation, litigation, M&E, and technology in politics. He has an MBA in human resources, marketing and computer science. He is also a certified management accountant. Enderle currently is president and principal analyst of the Enderle Group, a consultancy that serves the technology industry. He formerly served as a senior research fellow at Giga Information Group and Forrester. Email Rob.last_img read more

Retraction of article Joy of cooking too much from journal

first_img Source:http://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2717784/notice-retraction-joy-cooking-too-much-70-years-calorie-increases Related StoriesIt is okay for women with lupus to get pregnant with proper care, says new studyAMSBIO offers new, best-in-class CAR-T cell range for research and immunotherapyTAU’s new Translational Medical Research Center acquires MILabs’ VECTor PET/SPECT/CTThe article was the result of a research work by Brian Wansink from Cornell University. The study had analyzed cookbooks for home recipes and claimed that home cooking led to increased calorie intake since many of the recipes tended to be rich in fats and carbohydrates. This in turn was raising the risk of obesity, the authors of the study had concluded.The journal had sent a letter of investigation to the authorities at the University where the work was conducted and in turn received an answer from the Office of the Vice Provost for Research (Date 27 September 2018) that said, “This investigation has concluded that Professor Wansink committed academic misconduct in his research and scholarship.” The journal states that they tried to clarify this from the corresponding author Dr. Payne. That address and contact information did not finally lead to Dr. Payne they added.The team at the journal then asked for details of the data from Dr. Wansink. In response Dr. Wansink provided a re-analysis of the data. However, now the journal found that all the figures and numbers in the re-analysis were different from the originally published paper. The editors conclude in their notice, “In light of the inability to reproduce the published results, the editors cannot be confident in the integrity of the work reported in this article.”The referred article can be found at the following reference, “Wansink B, Payne CR. The joy of cooking too much: 70 years of calorie increases in classic recipes [Letter]. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150:291-2.”Wansink has been part of the team of experts who have helped to develop the U.S. dietary guidelines. His work recently came under scrutiny when a blog post unearthed academic misconduct. Since then many of his research publications have been retracted from well known journals. Image Credit: CanErmis / Shutterstockcenter_img By Dr. Ananya Mandal, MDDec 9 2018In a short notification, the editors of the Annals of Internal Medicine have announced that they are retracting a letter called “The Joy of Cooking Too Much: 70 Years of Calorie Increases in Classic Recipes”. The article in question was published in 2009.last_img read more

15 million grant to develop opioid treatment program for jail detainees

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Feb 22 2019In what could serve as a model for tackling one of the nation’s top public health crises, a University of Massachusetts Amherst epidemiology researcher is teaming up with two Western Massachusetts sheriff’s offices to design, implement and study an opioid treatment program for jail detainees in Franklin and Hampshire counties.Funded with a $1.5 million grant from the federal Subtance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the three-year project aims to deliver medications to some 500 detainees who agree to treatment, and connect them to follow-up care through a comprehensive community reentry program after their release.Elizabeth Evans, assistant professor in the School of Public Health and Health Sciences and one of the grant recipients, will collect data from all the stakeholders to measure the project’s outcomes. “The idea is to distill the lessons learned into a playbook or guide that can be used in jails in Massachusetts and across the nation,” Evans says.The opioid crisis has grown so severe that Americans are now more likely to die from an unintentional opioid overdose than in a vehicle crash or any other accident, according to the National Safety Council.Opioid addiction “is probably the issue of the 21st century in terms of public health,” Evans says, and the project reflects a shift in the approach to addressing the crisis. “Evidence supports the use of medications to treat opioid use disorder. This model signifies a willingness of the sheriffs to deliver care to reduce recidivism and to save people’s lives,” she says.Evans will help Franklin County Sheriff Christopher Donelan, Assistant Superintendent Ed Hayes and their staff expand and formalize the groundbreaking opioid treatment they began offering inmates in 2015 at the county jail in Greenfield. She also will work with Hampshire County Sheriff Patrick Cahillane, Assistant Superintendent Melinda Cady and their staff to implement the same program in the Northampton jail.The location of the rural counties along Interstate 91 leaves residents particularly exposed to the effects of opioid trafficking. For many of the jail detainees, it will be their first opportunity to receive evidence-based care for their disorder, Evans says. “This is a health condition,” she says. “And this is a very vulnerable population.”Related StoriesInternational study aims to more accurately describe mental health disordersCombat veterans more likely to exhibit signs of depression, anxiety in later lifeIU-connected startup working to enable precision medicine for mental health issues, chronic painEach of the jails has a medical director who assesses the need for treatment, prescribes the medication and monitors the detainees who receive it. An estimated 40 percent of inmates at both jails report having an opioid problem, Evans says, and most are willing to receive treatment, which can begin in as few as four days after arrest.The treatment medications include Suboxone, which contains buprenorphine and naloxone to help ease cravings and the severe, flu-like symptoms associated with withdrawal; and Vivitrol, an opiate-blocker given as an injection that lasts about a month. Jail authorities also are seeking DEA approval to offer methadone, a synthetic opioid commonly used to treat opioid use disorder.”People who experience withdrawal develop a fear of ever experiencing that again,” Evans says, which helps explain both the cycle of addiction and the high risk of overdose for detainees following their release from jail.According to a 2018 Massachusetts Department of Public Health report, the opioid overdose death rate is 120 times higher for recently released inmates than for other adults. And the first month after release is a critical time.”We recognize that the period after release from jail is a high-risk period for overdose and death from opioids,” Evans says. “The inmates’ tolerance changes and their bodies cannot withstand the same amount of substances as they could pre-incarceration. They often return to use at the same level, which becomes a lethal dose for them.”That’s why connecting people to medication providers and social services after their release from jail is a crucial part of the program, Evans says.Franklin and Hampshire counties are among seven in the Commonwealth in a pilot program mandated by the Massachusetts Legislature to start offering medication to inmates with opioid use disorder by September. Evans says the data gathered from the three-year project in Franklin and Hampshire counties may inform the Commonwealth’s burgeoning plan for jail-based opioid addiction treatment.”Jails used to be all about public safety,” Evans says. “Now they are taking on a public health role. This has potential benefits to both the incarcerated people and to us as a society.” Source:https://www.umass.edu/newsoffice/article/grant-funds-opioid-addiction-treatment-twolast_img read more

Diet reverses Alzheimerslike symptoms in mice

first_img Source:https://news.usc.edu/154890/alzheimers-like-symptoms-in-mice-reversed-with-special-diet/ Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Mar 7 2019A diet containing compounds found in green tea and carrots reversed Alzheimer’s-like symptoms in mice genetically programmed to develop the disease, USC researchers say.Researchers emphasize that the study, recently published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, was in mice, and many mouse discoveries never translate into human treatments. Nevertheless, the findings lend credence to the idea that certain readily available, plant-based supplements might offer protection against dementia in humans.”You don’t have to wait 10 to 12 years for a designer drug to make it to market; you can make these dietary changes today,” said senior author Terrence Town, a professor of physiology and neuroscience at the Keck School of Medicine of USC’s Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute. “I find that very encouraging.”What’s more, the study supports the idea that combination therapy, rather than a single magic bullet, may offer the best approach to treating the 5.7 million Americans living with Alzheimer’s. Combination treatment is already the standard of care for diseases such as cancer, HIV infection and rheumatoid arthritis.For this study, the researchers took a look at two compounds: EGCG, or epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a key ingredient in green tea, and FA, or ferulic acid, which is found in carrots, tomatoes, rice, wheat and oats.The researchers randomly assigned 32 mice with Alzheimer’s-like symptoms to one of four groups with an equal number of males and females. For comparison, each group also contained an equal number of healthy mice. For three months, the mice consumed a combination of EGCG and FA, or EGCG or FA only, or a placebo. The dosage was 30 mg per kilogram of body weight–a dosage well-tolerated by humans and easily consumed as part of a healthy, plant-based diet or in the form supplements.Related StoriesStudy reveals link between inflammatory diet and colorectal cancer riskDiet and physical exercise do not reduce risk of gestational diabetesAn active brain and body associated with reduced risk of dementiaBefore and after the three-month special diet, scientists ran the mice through a battery of neuropsychological tests that are roughly analogous to the thinking and memory tests that assess dementia in humans. Of particular note was a maze in the shape of a Y, which tests a mouse’s spatial working memory–a skill that humans use to find their way out of a building.Healthy mice instinctively explore each arm of the Y maze, looking for food or a route to escape and entering the three arms in sequence more often than by chance alone. Impaired mice can’t do this as well as their mentally healthy counterparts.”After three months, combination treatment completely restored working memory and the Alzheimer’s mice performed just as well as the healthy comparison mice,” Town said.How did it work? Town says one mechanism appeared to be the substances’ ability to prevent amyloid precursor proteins from breaking up into the smaller proteins called amyloid beta that gum up Alzheimer patients’ brains. In addition, the compounds appeared to reduce neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in the brain–key aspects of Alzheimer’s pathology in humans.Town said he and his lab will continue exploring combination treatment, with a focus on plant-derived substances that inhibit production of the sticky amyloid beta plaques.​last_img read more

Researchers develop nanoscale thermometers from diamond sparkles

first_imgReviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)May 3 2019Being able to measure, and monitor, temperatures and temperature changes at miniscule scales–inside a cell or in micro and nano-electronic components–has the potential to impact many areas of research from disease detection to a major challenge of modern computation and communication technologies, how to measure scalability and performance in electronic components.A collaborative team, led by scientists from the University of Technology Sydney (UTS), developed a highly-sensitive nano-thermometer that uses atom-like inclusions in diamond nanoparticles to accurately measure temperature at the nanoscale. The sensor exploits the properties of these atom-like diamond inclusions on the quantum level, where the limits of classical physics no longer apply.Diamond nanoparticles are extremely small particles–up to 10,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair–that fluoresce when illuminated with a laser.Senior Investigator, Dr Carlo Bradac, UTS School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, said the new technique was not just a “proof-of-concept realization.””The method is immediately deployable. We are currently using it for measuring temperature variations both in biological samples and in high-power electronic circuits whose performance strongly rely on monitoring and controlling their temperature with sensitivities and at a scale hard to achieve with other methods,” Dr Bradac said.The study published in Science Advances, is a collaboration between UTS researchers and international collaborators from the Russian Academy of Science (RU), Nanyang Technological University (SG) and Harvard University (US).Lead author, UTS physicist Dr Trong Toan Tran, explained that although pure diamond is transparent it “usually contains imperfections such as inclusions of foreign atoms.””Beyond giving the diamond different colours, yellow, pink, blue, etc. the imperfections emit light at specific wavelengths [colours] when probed with a laser beam,” says Dr Tran.The researchers found that there is a special regime–referred to as Anti-Stokes–in which the intensity of the light emitted by these diamond colour impurities depends very strongly on the temperature of the surrounding environment. Because these diamond nanoparticles can be as small as just a few nanometres they can be used as tiny nano-thermometers.Related StoriesResearch sheds light on sun-induced DNA damage and repairSlug serves as ‘command central’ for determining breast stem cell healthExciting study shows how centrioles center the process of cell division”We immediately realised we could harness this peculiar fluorescence-temperature dependence and use diamond nanoparticles as ultra-small temperature probes,” Dr Bradac said.”This is particularly attractive as diamond is known to be non-toxic–thus suitable for measurements in delicate biological environments–as well as extremely resilient–hence ideal for measuring temperatures in very harsh environments up to several hundreds of degrees,” he added.The researchers say that an important advantage of the technique is that it is all-optical. The measurement only requires placing a droplet of the nanoparticles-in-water solution in contact with the sample and then measuring–non-invasively–their optical fluorescence as a laser beam is shone on them.Although similar all-optical approaches using nanoparticles have successfully measured temperatures at the nanoscale, the research team believes that none have been able to achieve both the sensitivity and the spatial resolution of the technique developed at UTS. “We believe our sensor can measure temperatures with a sensitivity which is comparable–or superior–to that of the current best all-optical micro- and nano-thermometers, while featuring the highest spatial resolution to date,” Dr Tran said.The researchers at UTS highlighted that nanoscale thermometry was the most obvious–yet far from the only–application exploiting the Anti-Stokes regime in quantum systems. The regime can form the basis for exploring fundamental light-matter interactions in isolated quantum systems at energies conventionally unexplored. It opens up new possibilities for a plethora of practical nanoscale sensing technologies, some as exotic as optical refrigeration where light is used to cool down objects. Source:http://www.uts.edu.au/last_img read more

PCRF awards £12M grants for new research projects tackling pancreatic cancer

first_img Source:Pancreatic Cancer Research Fund Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)May 28 2019Seven innovative research projects tackling pancreatic cancer have been awarded grants totaling £1.2M by the UK medical research charity, Pancreatic Cancer Research Fund (PCRF).This is the fourth year that the charity has been able to allocate over £1M for research projects and brings its project portfolio spend to over £9M, with an additional £2M committed to the world’s first national pancreas tissue bank, created in 2016 to further accelerate research progress.The new projects span early diagnosis, potential new treatments and fundamental research to find out why immunotherapy does not yet work with pancreatic cancer. They include the progression of promising virotherapy research, a unique technology to tag unwanted proteins and trigger their destruction and testing whether machine learning techniques can help identify those at risk from developing the disease.Maggie Blanks, PCRF’s founder and Chief Executive, said: The seven awards are:Dr Richard Clarkson, Cardiff UniversityNormal cells are programmed to die if they become damaged or diseased in a process called apoptosis, but pancreatic cancer cells contain a molecule called c-FLIP which stalls this process. Dr Clarkson has shown in laboratory tests that blocking c-FLIP from working ‘releases the brakes’ on the anti-tumour process. He now wants to see if this works in mice with pancreatic tumours and will test new ways to block c-FLIP.Professor Laura Itzhaki, University of CambridgeCells stay healthy by tagging faulty proteins with a molecule called ubiquitin that acts like an address label, sending the proteins to be destroyed by the cell’s waste-disposal machinery. Prof Itzhaki has developed a technology that mimics this process, forcing ubiquitin to attach to selected proteins and trigger their destruction. This project will test if the technology can eliminate proteins produced by a faulty gene called KRAS, which is found in many pancreatic cancers.Dr Gunnel Halldén, Queen Mary University of LondonDr Halldén is progressing her PCRF-funded research which aims to use a flu-like virus, delivered into the bloodstream, to seek out and infect pancreatic cancer cells wherever they are in the body. This project will identify new drugs that improve the ability of the virus to replicate inside the cancer cells and spread within the tumour, which should stimulate the immune system to provide long-term protection from the disease coming back.Related StoriesNew protein target for deadly ovarian cancerBacteria in the birth canal linked to lower risk of ovarian cancerUsing machine learning algorithm to accurately diagnose breast cancerDr Naomi Walsh, Dublin City University, Ireland Dr Walsh aims to design chemotherapy drugs that will target and kill types of cancer stem cells within pancreatic tumours that are responsible for drug resistance and relapse. These drugs are designed using new techniques which enable them to be transported directly into the cancer cells. This means that patients could be given smaller doses and experience fewer side effects. It may also allow more patients to benefit from these new treatments.Dr Laura Woods, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Dr Woods’s project addresses the challenge of diagnosing pancreatic cancer earlier. She will apply ‘machine learning’ techniques to an historic, anonymised database of thousands of GP records to examine whether people who later developed pancreatic cancer shared similar early warning signs detectable before diagnosis. This could provide means of identifying a population of patients whom it would be cost-effective to screen, and increase the number of cancers diagnosed at a treatable stage.Professor Maeve Lowery, Trinity College DublinSome pancreatic cancer patients have faults in genes involved in repairing DNA, such as the BRCA2 gene, which makes the cancer more likely to respond to certain treatments. Professor Lowery will study tumour samples to find changes in different regions of these genes and assess how this affects the response to drugs which target defective DNA repair. She hopes the results will inform a clinical trial where patients are matched with drugs most likely to benefit them.Professor Hemant Kocher, Queen Mary University of London Professor Kocher’s project will investigate why immunotherapy – a treatment which harnesses the patient’s immune system to kill cancer cells – works with some cancers but not with pancreatic cancer. The team will investigate how immune cells interact with each other and are either triggered or dampened in pancreatic cancer. The aim of this project is to determine the most effective way of combining immunotherapy and chemotherapy in future pancreatic cancer clinical trials.center_img Research is the only way we’ll find better ways of tackling pancreatic cancer and we need to keep pushing the boundaries of different research approaches. These projects involve new ideas, new technologies and new techniques that excited our Scientific Advisory Panel and we’re keen to see what they deliver.”last_img read more

Researchers discover that pine nut shells are nontoxic and increase physical endurance

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jun 7 2019For several decades, the number of chronicle diseases has been growing. The main reason for this is the imbalanced diet. Biologists and chemists study natural foods concerning the fact that it can help strengthen health and prevent numerous diseases. They have designed a new concept, which is “functional food products”.Wild growing raw materials are the prospective sources of biologically active compounds. The Russian Federation has one of the biggest reserves of raw materials. The Eastern Siberia has endless cedar forests that cover territories of the Tyva Republic, Krasnoyarsk Region, Altai Region and the Republic of Buryatia, which is 18 million hectares. Annually, more than 1 million tons of pine nuts are harvested in Siberia.Related StoriesLow-carb diet may reverse metabolic syndrome independent of weight lossHealthy high-fiber diet could reduce preeclampsia riskHealthy blood vessels could help stave off cognitive declinePine nut shells are the source of carbohydrates, minerals and various organic compounds.Olga Babich, Svetlana Noskova and Stanislav Sukhikh, the researchers of the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, together with their colleagues from Kemerovo State University have studied the processed product of pine nut shells. The carbohydrate-mineral complex is rich in fibers and vitamins. The researchers have also discovered that it is non-toxic and increases physical endurance, which is why it is recommended as a sports nutrition product.Lately, the authoritative scientific journal Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre has published the article under the title “Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre”. According to the article, dietary fibres are necessary for the health of the digestive system. They have a positive effect on blood vessels and lower blood sugar level.Source: Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal Universitylast_img read more

Researchers identify genetic mutation that causes fatal response to HAV infection

first_imgReviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Jun 18 2019Researchers have identified a genetic mutation that caused an 11-year-old girl to suffer a fatal reaction to infection with the Hepatitis A virus (HAV). The study, which will be published June 18 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, reveals that mutations in the IL18BP gene causes the body’s immune system to attack and kill healthy liver cells, and suggests that targeting this pathway could prevent the deaths of patients suffering rapid liver failure in response to viral infection.HAV infects the liver and usually causes a relatively mild illness that clears up in a matter of weeks or months. But as many as 1 in 200 HAV patients suffer a much more severe response known as fulminant viral hepatitis (FVH) that is characterized by a rapid loss of liver tissue and catastrophic liver failure, resulting in the release of toxins that damage the brain. The condition is usually fatal unless the patient receives a liver transplant.Other hepatitis viruses can also cause FVH, but the reason why some patients suffer such a severe response to infection is unclear. It typically occurs in children and young adults who are otherwise healthy and have no prior history of liver disease or immunodeficiencies.A team of researchers led by Professor Jean-Laurent Casanova at The Rockefeller University in New York identified an 11-year-old girl in France who died of FVH after becoming infected with HAV. The researchers sequenced the girl’s DNA and discovered that she carried identical mutations in both copies of the IL18BP gene, which encodes a protein called interleukin-18 binding protein (IL-18BP).Related StoriesResearchers identify gene mutations linked to leukemia in children with Down’s syndromeSome people treated for type 1 diabetes may have monogenic diabetes, study findsFungal infection study identifies specific genetic vulnerability among Hmong peopleIL-18BP can bind and neutralize interleukin-18 (IL-18), a powerful ‘cytokine’ molecule that the body produces in response to infection in order to activate certain types of immune cells and promote inflammation. Casanova and colleagues determined that the mutation identified in the patient’s IL18BP gene prevented the IL-18BP protein from neutralizing IL-18.To understand how this might affect the body’s response to HAV infection, the researchers incubated human liver cells with Natural Killer (NK) cells, a type of immune cell that targets virally infected cells. Casanova and colleagues discovered that, in the absence of IL-18BP, IL-18 enhanced NK cells’ ability to target and kill liver cells, whether they were infected with HAV or not. Addition of IL-18BP blocked this IL-18–induced toxicity, suggesting that IL-18BP usually prevents an excessive reaction to HAV infection but that patients carrying mutations in this gene are susceptible to FVH. Source:Rockefeller University PressJournal reference:Casanova, J-L. et al. (2019) Inherited IL-18BP deficiency in human fulminant viral hepatitis. Journal of Experimental Medicine. doi.org/10.1084/jem.20190669. Our findings provide a proof of principle that FVH can be caused by inborn errors in single genes. Human IL-18BP injections have been approved for clinical use for indications unrelated to liver conditions and has been proposed as a treatment for preventing acetaminophen-induced liver damage. Neutralizing IL-18 with IL-18BP might be beneficial to patients with FVH caused by HAV and possibly other viruses as well.”Professor Jean-Laurent Casanova, The Rockefeller Universitylast_img read more